Sync stands for synchronisation. It is about getting two devices and/or machines to share data in an orderly way.
The idea behind sync is to get different assets (mobile devices, etc) to work and operate a system in unison.
Synchronising mobiles devices with a computer, for example, is usually done use a USB connection or a wireless communication technology, such as Bluetooth.
This will for instance, upload all you mobile contacts to your desktop and vice versa.
With newer devices and OSs it is possible to synchronise things without even needing to establish a communication before hand as thing will update over the internet.
Most major mobile players offer sync functions with their services. Google’s Android, Samsung, Apple, Microsoft and so on.
Other services like DropBox and even automakers like Ford also offer sync services to their users.
By synchronising contacts and any other sorts of files, data around those assets becomes available wherever the user goes.