A database is an organised collection of data.
Sitting at the core of an enterprise, a database is a collection of information that is organised so that a business can access, manage, and update it.
The most common type of database is a relational one; this is a database that is structured to recognise relations among data items as a set of formally-described tables.
There are also non-relational databases, often called a NoSQL database.
The relational database is a tabular model, while a NoSQL database is not.
Database tables consist of columns and rows, much like an Excel spreadsheet. Each column contains a different type of attribute and each row corresponds to a single record, this model is particularly well suited to structured data while a NoSQL database is well suited to dealing with unstructured data.
There are four general types of NoSQL databases, a graph database, key value store, column store, and document database.